This is not an exhaustive list. “Belief in concepts of
- witchcraft and spirit possession, demons or the devil acting through children or leading them astray (traditionally seen in some Christian beliefs),
- the evil eye or djinns (traditionally known in some Islamic faith contexts) and
- dakini (in the Hindu context);
- ritual or muti murders where the killing of children is believed to bring supernatural benefits or the use of their body parts is believed to produce potent magical remedies;
- use of belief in magic or witchcraft to create fear in children to make them more compliant when they are being trafficked for domestic slavery or sexual exploitation.
Belief in witchcraft, spirit possession and other forms of the supernatural can lead to children being blamed for bad luck, and subsequently abused. Fear of the supernatural is also known to be used to make children comply with being trafficked for domestic slavery or sexual exploitation.
Health implications of Abuse linked to faith or belief
Physical: This can involve beating, burning, cutting, stabbing, semi-strangulating, tying up the child, or rubbing chilli peppers or other substances on the child’s genitals or eyes.
Emotional: Emotional abuse can occur in the form of isolation. A child may not be allowed near or to share a room with family members, and threatened with abandonment. The child may also be persuaded that they are possessed. The act of telling a child that they are possessed by an evil spirit or told that they are a witch can be emotionally abusive.
Neglect: In situations of neglect, the child’s family and community may have failed to ensure appropriate medical care, supervision, education, good hygiene, nourishment, clothing or warmth.
Sexual: Children who have been singled out in this way can be particularly vulnerable to sexual abusers within the family, community or faith organisation. These people exploit the belief as a form of control or threat. Children could also be subject to practices through the deliverance process that are sexually abusive e.g. having to be bathed undress in the presence of others. Trafficked children from some countries have been known to be subjected to practices designed to control them. Some of these practices involve using their pubic hair and undergarments in rituals.
“Justifications” for Abuse linked to faith or belief
- Evil Spirits: Belief in evil spirits that can ‘possess’ children is often accompanied by a belief that a possessed child can ‘infect’ others with the condition. This could be through contact with shared food, or simply being in the presence of the child.
- Scapegoating: A child could be singled out as the cause of misfortune within the home, such as financial difficulties, divorce, infidelity, illness or death.
- Bad Behaviour: Sometimes bad or abnormal behaviour is attributed to spiritual forces. Examples include a child being disobedient, rebellious, overly independent, wetting the bed, having nightmares or falling ill.
- Physical Difference/Disability: A child could be singled out for having a physical difference or disability. Documented cases included children with learning disabilities, mental health issues, epilepsy, autism, stammers and deafness.
- Gifts and uncommon characteristics: If a child has a particular skill or talent, this can sometimes be rationalised as the result of possession or witchcraft. This can also be the case if the child is from a multiple or difficult pregnancy.
- Complex family structure: Research suggests that a child living with extended family, non biological parents, or foster parents is more at risk. In these situations they are more likely to have been subject to trafficking and made to work in servitude.
Signs that a child could be at risk of abuse linked to faith or belief
Child abuse linked to faith or belief is not confined to one faith, nationality, ethnic group or community. Cases have been recorded worldwide across various religions including Christians, Muslims and Hindus. Not all with the belief go on to harm children. The number of known cases suggests that only a small minority of people who believe in witchcraft or spirit possession go on to abuse children.
Abuse may happen anywhere, but it most commonly occurs within the child’s home.
- Children with disability including autism, epilepsy, down’s syndrome, dyslexia etc
- Children living away from home in private fostering situations or in domestic servitude situations
- Children living with a step-parent, with one of the natural parents absent or dead
- Children whose parents have been branded as witches
- Children who are seen as “naughty” or have challenging behaviour
- Precocious children and left handed children
- Children who are living within complex family structures e.g. a polygamous setting or reconstituted family
Signs that a child is undergoing Abuse linked to faith or belief
Most of the indicators may appear similar to other types of maltreatment.
- A child’s body showing signs or marks, such as bruises or burns, from physical abuse;
- A child becoming noticeably confused, withdrawn, disorientated or isolated and appearing alone amongst other children;
- A child’s personal care deteriorating, for example through a loss of weight, being hungry, turning up to school without food or food money or being unkempt with dirty clothes and even faeces smeared on to them;
- It may also be directly evident that the child’s parent does not show concern for or a close bond with them;
- A child’s attendance at school becoming irregular, or being taken out of school altogether without another school place having been organised;
- A child reporting that they are or have been accused of being evil, and / or that they are having the devil beaten out of them.
- A child made to wear some form of paraphernalia that could be of a religious nature.